Metal Objects

A few of the GRSLE sites contain a variety of Contact Period metal objects such as arrow points, point manufacturing debris, buttons, spheres, percussion cap, tinkler, and a Dutch oven (at 48PA3135). Each of these sites also has glass beads. These material provide a glimpse of both on-site activities and regional interactions and additional analysis in on-going and beginning to explore published information on other sites with well documented bead/metal object assemblages (e.g., Karklins 1983).

Dutch oven cached at 48PA3135.
Metal point manufacture debris at 48PA2772. Note: the fragments here are not all part of a single refittting sequence, but grouped to illustrate what seems to be the likely sorts of by-products as indicated by objects found associated in this cluster.

On several locations, the metal objects, particularly the small, rustly, non-descript bits are clustered into what appear to be specialized metal working activity areas, particularly for the production of metal arrow points (such clusters identified at 48PA2772, 48PA3135, and 48PA3277 each of which has both metal points and debris).

Metal Object Descriptive Data

Basic descriptive data on GRSLE metal objects can be downloaded as Excel file using link below

Basic descriptive data on the metal objects from Contact Period contexts are provided here. Since site locational data are sensitive (i.e., artifact theft is an on-going, series problem), specific horizontal proveniences are omitted. As analysis continues, these data will be updated.

Metal Point Coding

The metal points described here using the attributes used by John Kennedy in his 2009 Plains Conference poster Metal Projectile Points of the Interior West: Preliminary Numbers and Directions for future research.

Metal Object Images

Brief overview and images of the metal objects from these sites are available at the linked pages.


Karklins, Karlis (1983). Nottingham House: The Hudson’s Bay Company in Athabasca, 1802-1806. History and Archaeology 69. Parks Canada.